Against the Tide: Household Structure, Opportunities, and by Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen Carolyn J. Hill

By Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen Carolyn J. Hill

Ebook by way of Carolyn J. Hill, Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen

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20 Hill, Holzer, and Chen Notes 1. The relative wages of less-educated young men were also declining during much of this period, implying that reduced work incentives were at least part of the reason for their diminishing work effort (Juhn 1992). Decreasing availability of blue-collar and manufacturing jobs, rising skill demands, rising competition from immigrants and women, “spatial mismatch” problems, and persistent discrimination have also likely contributed to the difficulties of young black men (Holzer 2000).

2), both labor market outcomes and educational attainment are functions of demographic characteristics, cognitive achievement, and engaging in risky behaviors. 1), labor market outcomes also depend on educational enrollment status and attainment, as well as on the other variables independent of education. As such, the models described here are recursive in nature. Of course, engaging in risky behaviors is not likely to be strictly exogenous with respect to these outcomes; these relationships should be viewed as partial correlations that Outcomes for Young Adults in Two Cohorts 39 represent patterns of behaviors and outcomes across different groups of young people.

That gender differences in grades are somewhat larger than differences in ASVAB percentiles suggests behavioral, rather than cognitive, differences in school outcomes by gender. The reasons for the persistence of the achievement gap between whites and minorities remain somewhat unclear in the broader literature (Neal 2005). Though the gap narrowed during the 1980s, it stabilized or even widened slightly afterwards (Hauser and Huang 1996). 76 Sample size 5,119 5,810 Note: Sample includes all youth in NLSY97 as of Round 8.

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