By Giuliano Garavini
After Empires describes how the top of colonial empires and the adjustments in overseas politics and economies after decolonization affected the eu integration procedure. beforehand, experiences on eu integration have frequently focussed looking for peaceable kin one of the eu international locations, rather among Germany and France, or tested it as an offspring of the chilly battle, relocating including the ups and downs of transatlantic relatives. yet those twofactors by myself should not sufficient to give an explanation for the increase of the ecu group and its more moderen transformation into the eu Union.Giuliano Garavini focuses as an alternative at the emergence of the 3rd international as a world actor, ranging from its preliminary financial cooperation with the construction of the United international locations convention for exchange and improvement (UNCTAD) in 1964 as much as the top of team spirit one of the nations of the worldwide South after the second one oil surprise in 1979-80. delivering a brand new - much less myopic - option to conceptualise eu background extra globally, the learn relies on numerous overseas data (governmentarchives in Europe, the U.S., Algeria, Venezuela; foreign companies resembling the EC, UNCTAD, and the area financial institution; political and social agencies akin to the Socialist overseas, labour documents and the papers of oil businesses) and lines the reactions and the projects of the nations ofthe eu group, but additionally of the eu political events and public opinion, to the increase and fall of the 3rd global at the overseas level.
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Extra resources for After Empires : European Integration, Decolonization, and the Challenge from the Global South 1957-1986
Until 1963 pressures for a regional solution to the problem of African underdevelopment seemed much greater than those which would push for privileged relationships between Europe and Africa. But circumstances would change quickly. See G. Migani, “La Communauté économique européene et la Commission économique pour l’Afrique de l’ONU: la diﬃcile convergence de deux projets de développement pour le continent africain (1958–1963),” (2007) 13 Journal of European Integration History, pp. 133–46. 96 Nkrumah, Neo-Colonialism, p.
Rist, The History of Development, p. 94. 81 Mazower, Dark Continent, p. 301. M. Schlesinger, A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House (New York: Fawcett Premier, 1966), p. 468. ” Until 1963 Eugene Black, the World Bank President, had refused to change the conditions for the Bank’s loans, with the backing of the European executive directors who represented the Board’s most conservative nucleus, despite an increasingly obvious lack of opportunities for investment. The new president nominated in 1963, George Woods, courageously declared that underdevelopment was not entirely the responsibility of the poor nations, that among its causes were low commodity prices as well as the trade barriers erected by the developed countries, and that it was absurd that an institution designed to support development should consistently run signiﬁcant surpluses.
S. E. Asher, The World Bank Since Bretton Woods: The Origins, Policies, Operations, and Impact of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the other Members of the World Bank Group (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution Press, 1973). E. Wood, From Marshall Plan to Debt Crisis: Foreign Aid and Development Choices in the World Economy (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), pp. 70–1. 63 H. James, International Monetary Cooperation Since Bretton Woods (Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund and Oxford University Press, 1996), p.